European Court of Human Rights, Judgment of 16 February 2021, V.C.L and A.N. v. the United Kingdom, Application Nos. 77587/12 and 74603/12
In its judgment on the case of V.C.L and A.N. v. U.K., the European Court of Human Rights examined for the first time the content and scope of the principle of non-punishment of victims of trafficking (VoTs) for criminal acts directly connected to their situation of grave exploitation (art. 26 CoE Anti-Trafficking Convention 2005). The judicial review of the prosecutorial conduct of UK authorities set the stage for a broad discussion of the impact of State positive obligations of protection of VoTs under European law on the adoption of institutional arrangements concerning the multi-agent response to trafficking and on their dynamic interaction with criminal procedural rules, especially in cases, like the one at hand, where child victims are concerned.