European Court of Human Rights, Judgment of 5 April 2022, A.A. and Others v. North Macedonia, App. nos. 55798/16 et al.
Following the judgment N.D. and N.T. v. Spain, the ECtHR has issued another judgment concerning the scope of application of Article 4 Prot. 4 ECHR. While the Court acknowledged the respondent State’s jurisdiction, it nonetheless denied that a violation of the absolute prohibition of collective expulsion had occurred, building up its findings on the ‘culpable conduct’ test.